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Background

 
Throughout the years, the terms Trapiche, Ingenio and Hacienda have been used interchangeably creating a great deal of confusion as to the meaning of each.  Historically, a hacienda is a large estate or plantation that grew and harvested an agricultural product.  Ingenio is referred to the production facilitiy of a sugarcane hacienda.  Trapiche is the sugarcane grinding machinery or mill driven by wind, blood (slaves, horses or oxen), running water or steam.  Since most farmers that harvested sugarcane processed their own crop, the terms Hacienda, Trapiche and Ingenio came to refer basically to the same.

Ingenios or trapiches powered by wind typically used a cone-shaped structure which housed the grinding machinery powered by the windmill above.  Remains of five of these cone shaped structures can be seen on the  Plazuela Santa Ana Vives Carlota  and  Berdecia  pages.  The juice or "guarapo" extracted was then cooked in a series of kettles called a Jamaican Train and reduced to a syrup or molasses in a stone and brick factory building adjacent to the wind mill.  The heating process was fueled by burning wood and baggasse , therefore the need for the relatively short smoke stacks to create the needed draft.
 
The sugar industry in Puerto Rico dates back to the early 1500s when it replaced gold mining as the island's main economic activity.  According to José Julian Acosta y Calvo's notes to Fray Iñigo Abad book Geographical, civil and natural history of the Island of San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico, in 1546 Spanish Treasurer Juan de Castellanos lent 6,000 pesos of government funds for two ingenios.  In 1548 Gregorio de Santaolaya built a water driven mill and two horse driven mills and in 1549 Alonso Pérez Martel received a 1,500 pesos loan from the Treasury to install a water driven mill in his hacienda.  Acosta also states that in the following years the loans continued and with them new ingenios, but a short time later most ingenios were abandoned and the island, not withstanding its fertile soil and its privileged geographical location, remained stagnant for centuries.  

In 1644 Fray Damián López de Haro wrote; "All efforts in this island are directed to harvesting ginger and it is in such decline that nobody buys it, it is not even shipped to Spain; in the fields there are many farms and seven sugar ingenios where many villagers with their families and slaves help most of the year".  We learn from the writings of Canon Torres Vargas "...The main agricultural products in which commerce is based in this island are ginger, hide and sugar of which there are seven ingenios.  Four along the Bayamón River, two along the Toa River and one water driven along the Canóbana (sic) River, that other four of which two were along the Luisa River, one in the old town and another along the Toa-Arriba River have been undone, some because of enemy invasions and others because of its owners convenience".  In Fray Iñigo Abad y Lassierra 1788 book Geographical, Civil and Natural History of the island of San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico he stated "The cultivation of sugarcane is common all throughout the island: most farmers have part of their land dedicated to this crop, but they are very few who make it their principal harvest.  The large number of slaves required and the investment required to establish and ingenio with the needed machinery makes it impossible for many to increase its planting, which would be very interesting to the island and without doubt would overcome all obstacles that hamper its progress, if the extraction of its liquor would be allowed."  

The new market created by after the independence of the 13 Colonies  and new technology allowed the island's sugar industry to start a cycle of expansion in the last 20 years of the 18th Century.  At the request of the Spanish Crown, Irishman Tomás O'Daly Blake came to Puerto Rico in 1763 as a Spanish military officer responsible for the expansion of the El Morro Fortress .  By 1775, in partnership with Joaquin Power-Morgan and Alejandro de Novoa, they established Hacienda San Patricio in the Puerto Nuevo area where they produced sugar and rum.  His brother Jaime arrived in Puerto Rico in 1776 to take over the operation of Tomás' hacienda.  By 1786-1787 Jaime was owner of Ingenio Mameyes in Loiza and by the 1790s had taken over as owner of the prosperous Ingenio San Patricio.  They were the first ones to use the Jamaican Train in Puerto Rico, where the sugarcane juice was poured in series into 4 or 5 kettles of varying sizes from large to small where it was heated and left until most of the water evaporated and the liquid continued to thicken.  This new life of the sugar industry in Puerto Rico resulted in a threefold increase in slaves between 1779 and 1802.  

Another important factor contributing to the development of the sugar industry was the Royal Decree of 1778 signed by  King Charles III  which, based on recommendations of Alejandro O'Reilly, gave land ownership to those who worked it and allowed the Spanish American ports to trade directly with each other and with most ports in Spain.  It is worthwhile mentioning that between 1775 and 1800 the population of Puerto Rico grew from 70,260 to 155,426 inhabitants mainly because of the increase in agricultural activity fueled by the measures taken by the Spanish Crown. 
 
The haciendas production methods were costly and inefficient and in general the product quality was not according to standards required by the major US and British markets.   Sucrose yield was only 5%, when the sucrose content of sugarcane was known to be as high as 17%.  The mid-century general decline in world sugar prices, the  Cholera  epidemic of 1855 which decimated the slave population, the abolition of Slavery in 1873 , limited currency in circulation and few sources of credit, negatively affected sugar production.  By the time of the 1898 US occupation , coffee was the island's main agricultural export product.  
 
According to Teresita Martinez Vergne in her book Capitalism in Colonial Puerto Rico, in the 1820's the number of active haciendas was nearly 1,500.  By the 1860's that number was considerably reduced; the then approximately 550 active ingenios produced 105,000 tons of muscovado sugar or 7% of the world's production, but according to the information on page 76 of the 1879 Guia General de la Isla de Puerto Ricothe number of active ingenios that year was 385.  By the turn of the century, with the advent of the Centrales , the number of ingenios was further down to between 150 and 200, eventually dissapearing in the early 1900s.  
 
Between 1873 and 1880 Wenceslao Borda Rueda (1840-1914), a Colombian merchant established in Puerto Rico at the time, Hacienda/Central Providencia owner Santiago McCormick and Spanish Governor  Eulogio Despujol insisted on their proposal to separate the growing and processing of sugarcane with the creation of factories financed by banks or foreign machinery manufacturers.  This proposal was in part due to changes in the labor structure as result of the abolition of slavery in 1873.  Many ingenios upgraded to steam powered mills and more modern machinery and methods to process the juice or "guarapo", increasing their sugar production and the quality of their product.  However, with the advent in 1873 of the larger, more technically advanced Centrales, which used advanced systems, mechanically driven machinery and were capable of much larger production of quality sugar accepted by the large US and British markets, ingenios started to disappear as it was more economically feasible to process their product at the nearby Central than to process it themselves.
 
Beginning in 1873 new Centrales were established with local as well as foreign capital.  The Ingenio owners had no choice but to:
 
  • merge and become part of the new Centrales
  • abandon milling and become "colonos" just growing sugarcane under agreement with the Centrales
  • invest in more land and advanced equipment and become centrales themselves, as was the case with  Eureka  and  Plazuela
  • become cattle farms or grow other agricultural products on their lands
 
Many of the trapiches that at one time existed during the 1800s dissapeared due to insolvency and/or consolidation, their machinery and equipment removed and sold and their structures demolished or abandoned.  We identified and photographed remains of 54 trapiches each shown on its own page, their location can be identified on this Google Map .  Listed below are ingenios that to the best of our knowledge existed during the 19th Century but that as far as we know have no remains left.  Those highlited in gray were in operation at the time and included in Volumes I and II of José Ferreras Pagán 1902 book Biografia de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico.
 
  1. Amistad - Lajas.  Was established ca. 1850 by the Pellicier family with a steam mill and acquired in 1887 by the Vivoni family.  It consisted of 1,600 acres of which about 400 were planted with sugarcane.  Was located 1.5 Km West of PR-116 in Barrio Sabana Yegua. 
  2. Ana Maria - Ponce.  Established in 1844 by Juan Bautista Roubert when the Ana Maria, Heda (owned by Ramón Rivera) and Alcay Haciendas, each one with a blood driven trapiche, were consolidated into one.  It consisted of 561 "cuerdas" of its own plus 133 leased from the widow of R. Albizu of which approximately 300 were planted with sugarcane producing some 3,500 bags of muscovado sugar.  In 1905 it was acquired by Francisco Costa Palmieri & Carlos Costa Guevara from Etelvina Guevara, the widow of Francisco Roubert Castaing who died in 1897.  On or arond 1916 it became part of  Central Mercedita .  It was located between Barrios Coto and Cerrillos North of PR-14 and West of the Inabón River.
  3. Angelina - San German.  Was established by Valentin Rivera with an oxen driven mill who operated it until his death in 1885 when it passed on to the firm Rivera Hnos. consisting of his children Valentin (1837-1927), Fernando (1835,1910), Angela (1847-1913) and Angelina (1847-1892) Rivera Pagán; probably after whose name the hacienda was named.  It consisted of 80 acres of which 35 were used to grow sugarcane.  Was located on the left side of the trail from Duey in Barrio Hoconuco Bajo.
  4. Antoñita - Bayamón, José Hernandez Salguero (1869- )
  5. Arcadia - Vega Alta.  Was established in 1884 by Gavino Rivera Ramirez (1846- ) who acquired it and other lands from his father and named it Arcadia in honor of his daughter Arcadia Rivera Vega who was born in 1879.  It consisted of a total  625 acres and leased another 125 of which approximately 30 were dedictated to growing sugarcane.  It had a steam engine acquired in San Juan from the J. Goyco & Co. ice plant.  By 1902 it had stopped processing sugar and all its sugarcane was processed at the nearby Central Carmen .  At one point in time, Hacienda Arcadia was the 3rd largest tax contributor in Vega Alta after Central Carmen and Leonardo Igaravidez for his vast extension of lands in the municipality even though his Central San Vicente was in Vega Baja.  It was located on the Northeast edge of town in Barrio Espinosa.  
  6. Aurora - Cabo Rojo.  Was an abandoned estate in 1900 when it was acquired from Ernesto Cuebas by the firm Pedro M. Mallén & Co., the successor to Pedro M. Mallén Seda (1831-1888).  It consisted of 56 acres of which 16 were used to grow sugarcane.
  7. Aurora - Lajas.  Was established ca. 1840 by Spanish immigrant Narciso Pujals Vila with an oxen driven mill.  In 1880 when owned by his son Narciso Pujals Pérez (1844-1917), a steam mill was installed.  In 1902 it was owned by Juan Cancio Ortiz Lugo (1854-951).  It consisted of 300 acres of which approximately 100 were planted with sugarcane.
  8. Australia - Humacao.  Was originally an oxen driven mill with limited amount of land named Hacienda Carmen when established in 1881 by Spanish immigrant Matias Gros Piazuelo (1843-1909) and his wife Carmen Noya Morales (1826-1912).  In 1892 it was acquired by Indalecio López Gómez (1858-1914) who annexed the nearby Hacienda Buena Vista which he had leased from José Ramón Latimer Fernández (1859-1923) the son of William Henry Latimer whose father George Latimer owned Central Canovanas  and Barbara Fernández whose father José Ramón Fernández owned  Hacienda Esperanza .  In 1899 the hacienda was destroyed by Hurricane San Ciriaco and rebuilt with a power driven mill which operated until 1902.  It consisted of 1,700 acres including those on  lease of which approximately 350 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located East of the road to Yabucoa in Barrio Candelero Abajo which today lies within the Palmas del Mar Resort complex. 
  9. Bagatela - Ponce.  Was a 41 acre hacienda acquired in 1823 by Spanish immigrant from Navarra Gastón Echevarne ( -1838).  Upon his death the property was inherited by his widow Cecilia Pordi and their four children.  They never were successful in it administration and Bagatela shut down operations ca. 1856.  It was located in the western part of Ponce near the Hacienda Vayas.
  10. Barahona - Morovis, Carlos de Ereño del Rio.  The 1910 census shows 56 year old Spanish immigrant Carlos de Ereño del Rio address as "camino de carros del Ingenio Ereño que conduce a la carretera de Morovis a Manati" in Barrio Barahona of Morovis. 
  11. Bienestar - Utuado, Paz Hnos.
  12. Buena Fé - Cabo Rojo.  Was established in 1886  by Sinforoso Bonilla.  It consisted of 86 acres  with only 7 dedictaed to sugarcane producing about 15 hogsheds of muscovado sugar.  It was located on the road to Joyuda 2 Km from Cabo Rojo.  
  13. Buena Vista - Arecibo.  Was acquired ca. 1887 by E. Balaguer from Its original owners Ildefonso Victor (1845-1900) and Juan Francisco Watlington del Toro (1846-1877), two brother born in St. Croix then a Danish possession.  It was located very close to the East bank of the Rio Grande de Arecibo about 5 miles South of town.  It consisted of 450 acres of which 150 were used to grow sugarcane.  By 1902 its factory had shut down and it sugarcane was processed at Central Las Claras.  
  14. Buena Vista - Peñuelas.  Was established by Jaime Costas ca. 1835, upon his death it passed on to his heirs and then to the firm Costas Hnos.  whose representative was Luis Costas.  By 1902 its processing plant was closed and its sugarcane was processed at Guanica Centrale  to where it was transported by train.
  15. Buena Vista - San Lorenzo, Pedro Machín
  16. Buenaventura - Carolina, Marcelino Perez
  17. Caño Verde - Ponce.  Was established in 1836 by Gerónimo Rabassa until 1870 when it was owned by Pompeyo de Quintana, Elvira Rabassa Milá de la Roca and Teresa Vidal Cuadras the daughter of Isabel Rabassa Milá de la Roca.  It had a steam mill and consisted of 266 acres of its own plus 514 leased of which approximately 340 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Sabanetas West of Mercedita Airport and PR-52.
  18. Carmelita - Cabo Rojo.  Was established by Federico Delgado and was later acquired by Agustín Castelló and then by Catholic priest Carlos Jofre Palmer until 1893 when it was acquired by Alejandro Fernandez.  At one time its owner was reported to be Claudio Morales.  It consisted of 280 acres of which 20 were used to grow sugarcane, it also processed sugarcane from neighboring farms.  It was located in Barrio Miradero about 2 Km from town.
  19. Carmen aka Isabel Josefa - Cabo Rojo.  This was a long established oxen driven mill until 1872 when a steam mill was installed while under the ownership of Rafael Bello Motta and his wife Monserrate (Ratina) Ithier.  Upon his death, its ownership passed on to his estate and then to Spanish immigrant from Salamanca Guillermo Santos de la Mano (1851-1929) who on September 21,1885 married Josefa Tió Segarra (1847-1908) and then to Salvador Tió Malaret (1875- ) who sold it to Adolfo Ramirez de Arellano Conty (1831-1900).  After Ramirez de Arellano's death, it was owned by the firm Adolfo Ramirez de Arellano & Sobrinos represented by Alfredo Ramirez de Arellano Rosell who changed the name to Isabel Josefa in honor to his wife Isabel Josefa Bartoli and Quintin Ramirez de Arellano Ramirez de Arellano (1870-1935).  It consisted of 339 acres of which approximately 240 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located near PR-103 between the Guanajibo and Viejo Rivers adjacent to the North of what used to be Hacienda Ratina. 
  20. Carmen - Isabela.  José Ferreras Pagán in his 1902 book Biografía de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico states that Carmen was established by Juan Machado ca. 1877 and upon his death in 1888 by Sucn. Machado represented by Alonso Machado.  The 1910 Business Directory of PR shows Carmen as owned by Elisa Ruiz de Hau apparently in error.  Elisa Ignacia Ruiz was married to Michael Julius Robert Schnabel, Elisa's sister Carmen Ruiz, was the first wife of Arturo Hau Salguero, owner of Hacienda  Sábalos listed herein.  In 1896 its oxen driven mill was upgraden to a steam mill.  Carmen consisted of 376 acres of its own and leased another 317 to Sucn. Mantilla of which total about 100 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located about 6 Km Southeast of Isabela along the "El Centro" road to Quebradillas near the road from Isabela to San Sebastian in Barrio Galateo Bajo
  21. Carmen - Las Piedras.  Was established in 1882 by Antonio Márquez López (1838-1904) and acquired in 1900 by José Collazo who continued operating it with an oxen driven mill and increased its land to 426 acres of which 100 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located about 2 Km North of Las Piedras in Barrio Boquerón.  
  22. Carmen - San Sebastian, Carmen Iturrino
  23. Carmen - Santa Isabel.  Was owned by Manuel Cividanes and its years of operation were approximately 1880-1905. Located in Barrio Jauca, its last remains included a square smoke stack of an approximate height of 60' and two tanks one of which seem to have been the boiler.  Was located in Barrio Jauca 1º on the road to Guayama.
  24. Carrizales - Maricao, Molinelli Hnos.
  25. Ceiba - Vega Baja.  It was already a muscovado sugar factory with a steam powered mill in 1891 when it was acquired by José Manuel Portela.  It consisted of 300 acres of which 100 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located Northeast of the road from Vaga Baja to Vega Alta approximately 2 Km from Vega Baja. 
  26. Cintrona Primera - Juana Diaz.  In the 1850s, Cintrona was owned by Manuel Ferrer who also owned the Hacienda Potala and Hacienda Pastillo in Juana Diaz and was owner of  Hacienda Fortuna  in Ponce together with Jaime Guilbee.  By 1872 he is reported residing in his native Spain, the administrator of his interests in Puerto Rico was José Toro.
  27. Cintrona Segunda - Was established by Josiah Webbe (Jose Maria) & Robert Archbald (later changed to Archeval), two brothers of Irish descent that arrived in Puerto Rico in 1817 and 1818 respectively from the British Colony of Nevis.  Between 1822-1823 they established La Cintrona in Ponce's Barrio Capitanejo and in 1823 installed the first steam mill in the area.  Francisco Scarano in his book Haciendas y Barracones states this was the first steam mill in Puerto Rico, which steam was also the power source for a sawmill and a corn mill.  By the mid 1840s Cintrona Segunda was the biggest ingenio in the area with annual production of over 600 tons of sugar.  It appears the brothers brought other family members to work at Cintrona.  Immigrant records in the San Juan General Archives include the following: ​​
    1. John B. Archbald, in Ponce since Dec. 1823. Until he became ill, he was the mayordomo on the haciend of his relatives, his parents were William and Elizabeth, also Catholics; June 3, 1824.
    2. Carlos Archbald, from the English island of St. Kitts, natural son of D. Roberto Archbald and the Catholic Betsy Claxton. He want to work with his father.  Ponce, Nov 15, 1831. 
    3. Robert María Archbald, builds and rebuilds steam "trapiches" or sugarcane processing plants; brother of José María.  
    4. Though not related to a relative, the Archives include the following interesting comment: they had employed the engineer William Sinkin from New York to repair machinery. The authorities wanted him to travel to San Juan, but he was obese and had hemorrhoids, that's why he couldn't ride on horseback and asked for permission to stay without going to San Juan personally. 1830. 
    5. Robert Archbald was Robert McGill Archbal, from the island of Nevis, an English possession; he was single, lived in Juana Díaz, owned 7,000 pesos capital and eight slaves. May 25, 1818.
  28. Concepción - Aguada.  This 200 "cuerdas" Hacienda of which 75 were used to grow sugar cane, was established by the ancestors of Eulalia Quiñones the wife of José Néstor de Cardona Ramirez (1833-1905) who in 1868 installed a steam driven mill which produced around 500 "bocoyes" or 500 liter barrels of muscovado sugar.  Ca. 1892 due to deterioration of its milling machinery, it was acquired by Amell Massó and became part of Central Coloso .  It was located on the banks of the Culebrinas River close to the shore, one "league" from Aguada.  It had beautiful Palm Trees  and from the owner's two story wooden house the monument dedicated to Cristobal Colón erected in 1893 could be seen.  It was later owned by Francisco de Cardona. 
  29. Concepción - Cabo Rojo.  In 1896 was acquired by Delfín Ramirez.  It was a small hacienda with only 56 acres of which approximately 25 were planted with sugarcane.  Its location is not precise but was close to town, probably where La Concepción subdivision is located today. 
  30. Concepción - Fajardo, Sucn. Maria Diaz Siaca
  31. Constancia - Mayaguez.  According to José Ferreras Pagán in his 1902 book Biografía de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico, Constancia was established in 1850 by Simón Bey who installed an oxen friven mill.  It passed on to Carmen Suarez who by 1860 acquired additional land an installed a steam mill.  It then passed on to Carmen's heirs Agustín and Pedro Mangual Suarez.  After the Sucn. Carmen Suarez the hacienda was owned by Francisco de Paula Vazquez, Esteban Nadal Gros and Pedro Mangual.  According to this 1976 El Regional Newspaper article, Constancia was established by Pedro Mangual and his wife Esperanza Bofill and was inherited by their daughter Carmen Rita Mangual Bofill (1853-1909) who was married to Carlos Monagas Pesante (1849-1920) who ran the hacienda.  In 1904 Carlos leased the lands to the Guanica Centrale where its sugarcane was processed.  It consisted of 351 acres of which the majority was planted with sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Lavadero of Hormigueros on the banks of the Rosario River.
  32. Constancia - Rio Grande.  Was established in 1870 by Felipe Garcia South of Luquillo on the foot of the mountains at Barrio Mata de Platanos, in 1884 it was acquired by Nicolás Garcia.  It had an oxen driven mill and consisted of 270 acres of which approximately 50 were used to grow sugarcane.
  33. Convento - Fajardo.  Was established by Guillermo Brunet.  It was acquiered ca. 1886 by Spanish immigrant from Torrelavega, Cantabria Domingo Cerra Gonzalez (1842-1892) and his wife Pilar Becerril Torres (1849-1938).  After Domingo's death its administrator was his son Luis Cerra Becerril (1878- ).  It consisted of 1,100 acres of which 250 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located Northeat of Fajardo and East of the road to Rio Grande about 1½ Km from Fajardo.
  34. Cornelia - Cabo Rojo, Gustavo Saint Laurent
  35. Cruzada aka Carmen - San German.  Was originally known as Hacienda Carmen when at different times was owned by the Lugo and Garcés families. It had an oxen driven mill until ca. 1871 when a steam mill was installed.  In 1902 it was acquired by Lucas Pagán Seda (1862-1908) who changed its name to Carmen.  It was located in Barrio Maresúa, its land included what today is Urbanización Reparto Universidad.
  36. Cuebas de San José - San German.  Was established ca. 1886 by Genaro Cardona with an oxen driven mill.  Was located in Barrio Minillas and consisted of 278 acres of which only a small portion was used to grow sugarcane producing a mere 35-40 hogsheds of muscovado sugar annually.
  37. Cupey - San German.  Was established in 1877 by Dionisio Ramirez and his wife Juana de la Cruz Pabón Dávila and later owned by his son Ramón Maria Ramirez Pabón (1858-1912).  Was located in Barrio Minillas and consisted of only 97 acres and produced 20 hogsheds of muscovado sugar annually.
  38. Destino - Santa Isabel.  Was established by Pedro Juan Capó who lived in Ponce until his death in 1874.  It was inherited by his daughters Eufemia (married to Francisco Parra Duperón ), Matilde (married to Pedro Juan Rosaly ) and Ursula (married to Francisco Arce Romero) all Capó Renta who continued to operate the hacienda under the name Sucn. Capó.  With the establishment of Central Aguirre , Hacienda Destino stopped processing and sent all its sugarcane to Aguirre.  Until recently it was reported there was still standing a masonry building which may have been the processing plant.  Was located on the North side of the road to Guayama about 3 Km. from Santa Isabel, it had an irrigation canal that got its waters from the Paso Seco River.  It consisted of 1,880 acres of which 450 were planted with sugarcane.
  39. Dolores - Cabo Rojo.  Was established ca. 1860 by Joaquin Vidal Jimenez (1840-1900) with an oxen driven mill and later on by Joaquin's son Ignacio Vidal Beiso (1863-1938) also at one time owner of Hacienda Belvedere .  It consisted of 25 acres of which 18 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Pedernales.
  40. Dolores - Tallaboa.  Was established ca. 1867 by the firm Valdivieso Hnos. comprised of Antonio and Herminio Valdivieso.  In 1902 was acquired by Dolores Rodriguez La Roche.  It consisted of 4,512 acres of which 700 were used to grow sugarcane.  Beginning with the 1902 grinding season its sugarcane was processed at Guanica Centrale.  It was located on the banks of the Tallaboa River, the train passed through the front of the property.
  41. Dos Hermanos - Añasco, José R. Vélez. The document titled "Añasco: Notas para su Historia" written by Dr. Carlos Gaztambide Arrillaga in 1984, states 1857 as the year Hacienda Dos Hermanos was established.
  42. Dos Hermanos - Fajardo.  Was established ca. 1890 by the firm Rivera Hnos. with an oxen driven mill which later was replaced by a steam mill.  In 1902 its owner was Domingo Rivera.  It consisted of 300 acres of which 400 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was on the East side of the road to Rio Grande Northeast of Fajardo about 1 Km. from town.  
  43. Elena - Cabo Rojo, Sinforoso Bonilla
  44. Enriqueta - Moca, it was established in 1884 by German immigrant Heinrich Kleibring who named it Enriqueta in honor of his daughter who married Tomás Babilonia.  Kleibring installed a steam powered mill acquired from the defunct Hacienda Nueva Esperanza property of Ramón López.  After Kleibring's death, Enriqueta inherited the property and in the 1920s sold it to Alberto Esteves Volkers of Aguadilla.  It is currently owned by Dr. Eleuterio (Tellito) Loperena who converted it into museum.
  45. Esperanza - Guayama.  Was established ca. 1860 by Spanish immigrant from Catalonina Jacinto Texidor who arrived in Puerto Rico in the 1790's, it was later acquired by Juan Vives de la Rosa owner of Hacienda Vives and in 1892 by the firm Amorós Hnos.  It consisted of 500 acres of which 200 were planted with sugarcane.  It wa slocated in Barrio Machete.  
  46. Esperanza - San Sebastian, Hermanos Rabell Cabrero
  47. Estebanía - Mayaguez, Salvador Nadal.  Was located in Barrio Guanajibo on the banks of the Guanajibo River.
  48. Eugenia - Añasco.  Was established by Francisco Alvarez initially with an oxen driven mill then a steam mill.  It was acquired in 1876 by Carlos De Choudens who installed equipment from the West Point Foundry in NY.  It consisted of 1,200 acres which included part of the lands of the defunct Hacienda Santisima Trinidad property of Alfredo Cristy Vanell owner of Central Fortuna in Rio Grande.
  49. Euskara - San Sebastian, Pedro Jaunarena
  50. Eugenia - Añasco.  Was established in 1864 by Francisco Alvarez initially with an oxen driven mill then a steam mill.  In 1870 it was acquired by brothers Ramón Arístides and Demétrio Cámara and in 1876 by Carlos de Choudens (1929-1902) who installed equipment from the West Point Foundry in NY and produced rum Chs. de Choudens that won Gold Medal in the Barcelona Expo of 1888.  It consisted of 1,200 acres which included part of the lands of the defunct Hacienda Santísima Trinidad property of Alfredo Cristy Vanell owner of Central Fortuna in Rio Grande.  Hacienda Eugenia was sold for $150,000 at public auction in 1904. 
  51. - Naguabo.  Was acquired in 1901 by The Gustavo Preston Co. of which Arroyo born Gustavo Preston (1856- ) was President and David K. M. Knott was Administrator.  It consisted of 600 acres fo which 261 were planted with sugarcane.  It was located about 2 Km West of Naguabo close to the Fé River and East of the Blanco River in the general area where today is the intersection of PR-970 and PR-31. 
  52. Filial Amor - San Germán.  The Filial Amor plantation (Ato) dates back to the 1700s when it included lands later segregated and known as Haciendas Luisa Josefa, Carolina among others.  It belonged to Francisco Plácido Quiñones Quiñones the father of Francisco Mariano Quiñones.  It was later in herited by Francisco Mariano's children Francisco Plácido, Mary and Julia Matilde also Quiñones Quiñones.  After being segregated, it consisted of 200 acres of which all were dedictaed to growing sugarcane processed it is own sugar factory which had a steam mill.  It was located on the road from San German to Mayaguez about 3 Km from San German on the North side of the road as well as on the North side of the railroad tracks.  The Estero River crossed its lands about 300 m North of the factory. 
  53. Fortuna - Isabela.  According to José Ferreras Pagán in his 1902 book Biografia de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico, it was in the 1700s a coffee plantation belonging to a Monsieur Milet who dedicated part of its lands to grow sugarcane and installed an oxen driven mill.  It was acquired by Ramón Alers in 1789 and ca. 1880 by Emilio Vadi, at one time owner of Central Coloso .  It then passed on to Carlos Federico Schomburg, a German immigrant from Hannover who arrived in PR in 1835 and then his son Guillermo Schomburg Bercedoniz (1845-1912).  By 1892 Fortuna was not in a good financial situation and was acquired by Spanish immigrant from the Canary Islands Pedro Amador Perez and his wife Demetria Machado Amador also at one time owners of Hacienda Monserrate in Camuy.  It consisted of 450 acres of which 50 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located where today is the Subestacion Experimental de Isabela also known as "La Granja" on PR-2 Km 114.7.
  54. Fortuna - Fajardo.  Was established with a steam mill by Manuel F. de Guzmán Peña and his wife Modesta Benitez Guzmán (1832-1899) whose family owned Central Arcadia and Central Playa Grande in Vieques.  In 1896 it was acquired by Luis Manuel Cintrón Sanchez (1848-1917) who was the original owner of Central Arcadia in Vieques.  It consisted of 1,000 acres of which approximately 400 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located about 2 Km South of Fajardo we would think at or near where today is the Barrio Luis M. Cintrón, the Fajardo River ran through its lands.  In 1902 its administrator was Carlos Benitez Castaño, nephew of Manuel F. and Modesta.
  55. Fortuna - Naguabo.  On his 2005 paper Documentación e Interpretación de Mitigacion de la Hacienda Rodriguez/Colonia Monserrate Barrio Rio Balanco Naguabo, Puerto Rico, Eng. Luis Pumarada states that by 1878 the 650 cuerdas Hacienda Fortuna had a steam mill.  He states that after the firm Hnos. Busó was dissolved in 1845 it was owned by Juan Busó Quintana (1833-1919).  In a published edict on the Gaceta de Puerto Rico in 1881, the Humacao Disctrict Judge ordered the sale in public auction on March 28, 1881 of Hacienda Fortuna located in Barrio Rio of Naguabo property of Alejandro Viader and Francisco Busó as a result of a case initiated by A. Viader & Co. for the collection of money.  In his 1902 book Biografía de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico José Ferreras Pagán mentions Hacienda Fortuna as a cattle farm no longer processing sugar cane owned by J. R. Garzot (owner of Central Triunfo ).
  56. Frontón - Ciales, Luis Forteza
  57. Gabina - Cabo Rojo.  Was established in 1866 by José Monserrate Ramos Irizarrry (1831-1911) with an oxen driven mill and named Gabina in honor of his wife Gabina Alvarado.  It consisted of 60 acres of which only 10 were used to grow sugarcane producing only 20 hogsheds of muscovado sugar annually.  It was located in Barrio Miradero.
  58. Garza - Lajas, Aurelio Acosta
  59. Gregoria/La Pica- Guayama.  It was established by Matias Pica ca. 1830 with an oxen driven mill, upon his death in 1842 it passed on to his heirs which included his daughter Carmen Pica Martelo and her husband Luis B. Cabassa Tassara who in 1865 installed a steam mill and acquired additional lands growing it to 425 acres of which 250 were used to grow sugarcane.  According to Luis Figueroa in his book Sugar, Slavery and Freedom in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico, "Don Jesús Maria Texidor y Vazquez (1836- ) owned still another plantation, Hacienda Gregoria, a mid-size estate that was nevertheless Guayama's fifth most productive in 1872".  It was located about 1,350 m Nortwest of Central Machete just south of the Patillas Irrigation Canal. 
  60. Guillerma - Cabo Rojo.  Was established ca. 1870 with a steam mill and acquired in 1899 by Spanish immigrant from Barcelona Salvador Andinach Gordi (1871-1903) who died single and without children.  It consisted of 103 acres of which only 20 were used to grow sugarcane.  Was located in Barrio Miradero.  
  61. Guillermina - San Germán.  Was established in 1871 by Guillermo Servera Sandro and later owned by his son Miguel Servera Nazario (1836-1918).  It consisted of 240 acres of which approximately 60 were used to grow sugarcane.  Was located in Barrio Retiro Tea near to where today is the Urbanización San Ramón.
  62. Higuero - San Germán, José Vicente Quiñones.  Was located in the Sector Minillas Valle of Barrio Minillas.
  63. Hoyo Vicioso - Fajardo.  Was established by José Becerril the father of Dolores Becerril Torres who was married to Jose Miguel Rivera Correa owner of haciendas Santa Rita and San Pedro in Fajardo.  In 1884 its ownership passed on to José's daughter Isabel Becerril Torres who was married to José Penedo Benitez born in Casilda Province of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba and nephew of Modesta Benitez Guzmán owner of Hacienda Fortuna in Fajardo.   It had a steam mill and consisted of 518 acres between two farms of which 180 were planted with sugarcane.  Its factory and 218 acres were located about 1 Km East of Fajardo on the foothills of the mountains with an aditional 300 acres located in barrio Demajagual.
  64. Josefa - Aguada.  Was a 100 "cuerdas" Hacienda established in 1886 by José Ramirez. It had an oxen driven mill with a wooden structure and a Egroot type still.  By 1898 a vapor driven mill had been installed.  It was located approximately 200 meters from the shore alongside the Culebrinas River.  Its lands were acquired by Amell Massó and became part of Central Coloso .  
  65. Josefa - Humacao.  Was acquired in 1897 by José Beltrán.  It consisted of 466 acres of which 150 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located about 6 Km from Humacao South of the road to the Playa de Humacao and North of the Humacao River.    
  66. Jovita - San Germán.  Was established in 1858 by Ramón Porrata with an oxen driven mill.  It was later owned by the Sucn. Porrata represented by his widow Concepción Acosta Nazario (1837-1912) and their children Gregorio, Antonio (1862-1927), Concepción (1864-1926), Francisca (1864-1949) and Maria Luisa (1870-1952) Porrata Acosta.
  67. Juanita - Camuy.  Was established by Juan Antonio Gonzalez in 1883.
  68. Juanita - Rincón.  In 1866 it had an oxen driven mill with wooden masses which were upgradeed to steel in 1876 after being acquired by Juan Martinez ca. 1872, it was subsequently acquired in 1900 by Juan Angel Rodriguez.  It consisted of 82 acres of which approximately 25 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Calvache accross from Central Corsica.
  69. La Caridad - San Germán, Valentin Cordero
  70. La Dolores - Cabo Rojo.  Was established by Manuel Rodriguez Acosta who operated it with an oxen driven mill until 1896 when it was acquired by José A. Ortiz Pabón.  It consisted of 200 acres of which about 40 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Miradero.
  71. La Sociedad - San Germán.  According to José Ferreras Pagán in his 1902 book Biografía de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico it was established in 1871 by brothers Melitón (1840-1925) and Domingo (1853-1903) Almodovar Nazario with an oxen driven mill and in 1902 its owner was Melitón.   It consisted of 220 acres the majority used to grow fruits and vegetables, it produced about 35 hogsheds of muscovado sugar.  Was located in Barrio Minillas Southwest of the road to Sabana Grande.
  72. La Vega - Arecibo.  Was established ca. 1845 by Sebastián Figueroa who substituted an oxen driven mill for a steam powered mil acquired from the A. & W. McOnie firm in Glasgow.  It consisted of 410 acres of which 210 were used to grow sugarcane.  In 1902 it was owned by Figueroa's Grandson Sebastián Figueroa Colón who annexed to it the adjacent Hacienda Puente Bagazo (later known as Mercedes) which he leased from Petra Berrios.  It was located East of a channel created by Hurricane San Ciriaco between the channel and the Rio Grande de Arecibo about 1 Km from town. 
  73. Las Lisas - Arecibo.  Was established in 1855 by Manuel Ortiz y La Torre and owned by Sucn. Manuel Ortiz y La Torre since 1874.  It consisted of 725 acres of which 320 were dedicated to grow sugarcane.  In 1888 its factory had already shut down and its sugarcane was processed at Central Monte Grande.  By 1902 its factory facilities and equipment were abandoned, it was represented by the Manuel Ortiz, the Administrator of Central Monte Grande.
  74. Luisa - Toa Alta, Matilde Claudio
  75. Luisa Josefa - Mayaguez.  It was originally owned by Carlos Fajardo Belvis (1822-1890) whose descendants established  Central Eureka , then by Latimer & Co., then by Eduardo Kemp.  In 1902 its owners were José Antonio Gonzalez and Spanish immigrant from Andalucia Damián Del Moral.  The Duey River passed through its 304 acres which were part in Mayaguez and part in San Germán.  It was located South of the trail from Barrio Duey Bajo to San Germán near the Duey River. 
  76. Luisa 2da - Mayaguez.  Was owned by Pedro Gonzalez Suarez (1878-1939).
  77. Mallorquina - Juncos.  Was owned by the heirs of Spanish immigrant from Palma de Mallorca Jaime Palou  comprised of his wife Caguas born Dolores Jiménez and their son Jaime Palou Jiménez.
  78. Margarita - Fajardo.  Was established ca. 1832 by Federico Garcia Rivera and his wife Carolina Veve Ferand who operated it until his death ca. 1876.  It was then acquired by their daughter Carolina Garcia Veve (1858-1918) who was married to Dr. Santiago Veve Calzada (1858-1931).  It had a steam driven mill and consisted of 1,300 acres of which 300 were used to grow sugarcane.  The hacienda had telephone lines that connected it to Hacienda Union and to her husband's drugstore both in Fajardo.  It was adjacent on the East to Hacienda Unión which was owned by Carolina's cousing Miguel Zalduondo Veve on the East bank of the Luquillo River; the road to Rio Grande intesected its lands.
  79. Maria Teresa - Camuy, José Machado
  80. Merced - Guayama, Rufina M. de Cividanes
  81. Mercedes - Yauco.  Was owned by Ginés Roura Perez (1880- )​​
  82. Minillas - San German.  Was established in 1854 and operated until 1874 when it was abandoned.  It was revuilt and began operating again in 1884 with a steam mill.  It only processed land of other pplanters as it had no lands of its own.  In 1902 it was owned by Maria E. Ramirez de Quiñones and was its administrator José Vicente Quiñones. 
  83. Monserrate - Cabo Rojo.  According to information we gathered, La Monserrate was named after Our Lady of Montserrat, the Patron Saint of Catalonia.  It was established in the 19th century by prominent Puerto Rican autonomist and physician of Catalonian descent Dr. Salvador Carbonell (1841-1907), who spent time in the El Morro jails in the late 1880's for his opposition to the then prevailing Spanish regime.  This information conflicts with José Ferreras Pagán 1902 book Biografía de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico which states that Hacienda Monserrate was established by Antonio Ramirez with an oxen driven mill and was acquired in 1856 by Juan Murray who installed a steam mill.  The book also states that in 1870 it was acquired by the firm Patxot, Castelló & Co. and later owned solely by Agustín Castelló who was its owner in 1902.  Ferreras Pagán does not mention any ownership by Dr. Salvador Carbonell.  It consisted of 850 acres of which about 100 were used to grow sugarcane and was located in Barrio Miradero about 1 Km from town.
  84. Monserrate - Camuy.  Was established in the mid 1800s by Spanish immigrants from Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands Pedro Amador Pérez and his wife Demetria Machado Amador.  It was not until 1880 that an oxen driven mill was installed to produce muscovado sugar in small quantities.  It also had a still where for a short period of time rum was produced.  Its land were mostly used to raise cattle with only 30 of its 338 acres dedicated to grow sugarcane.
  85. Monserrate - Rio Grande (1874-1882).  Was established by Spanish immigrant José Calzada and his Arecibo born wife Maria Martinez in 1850 with an oxen driven mill, in 1854 a steam driven mill and a Jamaican Train were installed.   In 1874 it was owned José's daughter Maria Maria del Carmen Calzada Martinez and her husband Miguel Adolfo Veve Ferand (1822-1885) who renovated the factory and updated its machinery.  It then passed on to their son Miguel Adolfo Veve Calzada (1855-1898).  The property was abandoned for a few years until Miguel Adolfo purchased and began installing equipment from the defunct Central Bello Sitio in Fajardo which had shut down in 1891.  It was located West of Luquillo on the road to Rio Grande about 150 m from the sea shore.
  86. Mont Ida - Naguabo.  It belonged to British immigrant Guillermo Noble, also owner of Oriente in Naguabo, who operated a steam mill which later was upgraded with machinery acquired from C. Fletcher & Co. of London.  It was later owned by his relative George J. Knott Noble (1840-1911) the son of James Knott and Sara Noble Latimer.
  87. Nueva Esperanza - Aguadilla, Sucn. Duprey
  88. Olimpo - Guayama.  Was established in 1835 by José Antonio Vazquez with an oxen driven mill.  By 1858 it had a hydraulic mill when it was acquired by Florencio Capó Planchart (1811-1882) who intalled a steam mill.  After Florencio's death its ownership passed on to his son José Maria Capó Alvarez who was married to Teresa Massari Cintrón (1861-1924).
  89. Oriente - Naguabo.  Was established by British immigarnt Guillermo Noble ca. 1850 also owner of Hacienda Mont Ida who installed a steam mill.  It was acquired by Mr. Ochembein & Swiss immigrant Pablo Sandoz Xugner (1831-1918) in 1862 who upgarded its machinery.  It consisted of 1,180 acres split by the Daguao River from West to East, about 350 acres were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located South of the road to Fajardo about 5 to 6 Km from Naguabo close to the sea shore.  
  90. Palma - Bayamón.  Was originally a 119 acre hacienda established in 1843 by Spanish immigrant Bartolomé Puigdoller ( -1878) with an oxen driven mill.  Upon his death, it was inherited by his son Antonio Puigdoller Soler (1848-1926) who installed a steam mill and grew it to 978 acres of which 156 were used to grow sugarcane.  Was located near Palo Seco in Barrio Palmas of Bayamón between the road to Cataño and the Bayamón River.
  91. Pámpanos - Ponce.  Was established in the early 1820s by Frenchman Pedro Gautier ( -1823), the administrator of the Hacienda Quemado.  Upon his death, half of the hacienda was leased to his Son-in-Law Juan Ventura Pedro Blanchereau ( -1826).  However, upon Blanchereau's untimely death all of the the hacienda was leased for a nine year period to Alexander Harang ( -1836), a Louisiana native who had arrived in Ponce in 1818 and owned Hacienda Los Meros dedicated to raising cattle and growing cotton.  In 1831 Harang subleased half of Los Pampanos to Frenchman Guillermo Dubocq, recently arrived in Ponce from Saint Thomas and shortly thereafter he subleased 1/4 of Pámpanos to Juan Lambert.
  92. Panchita - San German.  Was established by Juan Bautista Gandulla and his wife Inés Irizarry ca. 1870 with an oxen driven mill and acquired in 1900 by José Ramón Quiñones Velez.  It consisted of 50 acres of which 25 were used to grow sugarcane.
  93. Panchita - San German.  Was established in 1860 by Pedro Maria Rivera.  Was located where today is the Urbanización San Ramón in Barrio Retiro Tea.  It consisted of 400 acres of which about 36 were planted with sugarcane.  The Cupey River intersected its lands passing between the Casa de Pailas and the owner's residence.
  94. Paraiso - Fajardo.  Was established ca. 1847 by Spanish immigrant Gabino Sabat passing on to the ownership of Antonio Carrasquillo and in 1868 to the firm Matta Hnos. comprised of José Nicolas Matta Quiñones (1839-1909), Teodosio Matta Quiñones (1833-1911) and Concepción Matta Quiñones (1841-1934).  It consisted of 2,150 acres of which approximately 200 were planted with sugarcane.  It was located about 7 Km West of Fajardo in Barrio Rio Arriba, the Fajardo River meanders through its lands.
  95. Pastillo - Juana Diaz.  Was owned by Manuel Ferrer who in the 1850s also had ownership in Cintrona and Potala in Juana Diaz and in  Hacienda Fortuna  in Ponce. In 1872 Ferrer is reported living in his native Spain, the administrator of his interests in Puerto Rico was José Toro.
  96. Patillas - Patillas.  Was established by Juan Pou during the first half of th 19th Century.  It was acquired by Corsican immigrant Juan Bautista Massari in 1862 who in 1893 leased it to Corsican immigrant Santos Tomei Berlingeri (1856-1911).  It consisted of 500 acres of its own and 800 leased of which about 500 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located about 200 m West of Patillas, water from the Rio Grande de Patillas was used for irrigation.   
  97. Perseverancia - Quebradillas.  It was established in 1857 as a coffee plantation by Juan Cancela.  It was acquired by Spanish immigrant Juan Igartua Alberti who dedicated part of its land to grow sugarcane and built an oxen driven mill.  After Igartua's death in 1884, it was managed by his sons Rafael & Carlos Igartua del Valle.  It consisted of 300 acres of which approximately 50 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located on the West side of the road from Quebradillas to Lares about 1.5 Km from Quebradillas.
  98. Perseverando - Hatillo.  Was established by Antonio Ledesma ca. 1875.  Upon his death in 1882 it passed on to Sucn. A. Ledesma and in 1898 was acquired in full by one of his heirs, Fernando Ledesma.  By 1900 its sugar factory had closed and for the next two years its sugarcane was processed at Hacienda Santa Rosa, from then on they were processed at Central Plazuela where they were transported by train.  Fernando was part of the group that planned the establishment of Central Bayaney in 1910.
  99. Placeres - Aguada.  It was established by Juan López and had approximately 900 "cuerdas.  Upon the death of Juan, between 1872-1874 it was split among his heirs and ceased to operate.  It was not until 1897 when owned by Juan Lavedezze that it began operating again, this time with 295 "cuerdas" of which only 20-30 were planted with sugar cane.  In 1898 it was destroyed by a fire and in 1899 destroyed again this time by Hurricane San Ciriaco , both times it was rebuilt.  It was located in the old trail from Aguada to Aguadilla about 600 meters from the shore.
  100. Progreso - San German.  Was established in 1902 by Antonio Garcia with an oxen driven mill.  It consisted of 30 acres of which 20 were dedictated to grown sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Minillas along the road to Sabana Grande.
  101. Providencia - Cabo Rojo.  Was abandoned by 1890 when acquired by José Secundino Ramirez Vega who installed an oxen driven mill and a still.  It consisted of 44 acres of which only 12 were planted with sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Miradero about 1 km from Cabo Rojo.
  102. Providencia - San German.  Was established by Francisco del Valle ca. 1872.  After his death, in 1888 his widow sold it to Jose Maria Porrata Saavedra who married Ricarda Sambolin in 1899 and divorced her in 1903.   In his 1902 book Biografía de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico, José Ferreras Pagán states the owner at the time was Ricarda Sambolin.  It consisted of 160 acres of which 50-80 were planted with sugarcane.  It was located 2 Km from San German along the trail to Duey in Barrio Sabana Grande Abajo.
  103. Quemado - Ponce.  Was a 195 acre plantation acquired in 1803 by Catholic priest José Gutierrez del Arroyo ( -1850) who made it the largest hacienda in Ponce soon after its acquistion.  Due to his transfer to the church in San Juan, Gutierrez del Arroyo left the administration of the hacienda ca. 1810 to Frenchman Pedro Gautier who succesfully managed the plantation becoming half owner by the time of his death in 1823.  After Gautier death administration was in the hands of also Frenchman José Maria Latour.    It was located near the mouth of the Potugués River.
  104. Rábanos - Lares, Sucrs. de Castañer
  105. Ranchera - Isabela.  Was established by Francisco Antonio Pino Bello (1833-1893) the son of Spanish immigrants from the Canary Islands and his wife Cristina Corchado.  Upon his death it was owned by the Sucn. Pino comprised of Francisco (1863-1897), Maria (1874-1941) and Antonia (1860-1927) Pino Corchado.  My uncle Walter Negroni Lacroix was married to Milagros Gomez Boothby the grandaughter of Antonia Pino Corchado and her husband Dr. Gerónimo Gomez Cuebas.  It consisted of 478 acres of which very few are used to grow sugarcane, it produced about 40 "bocoyes" or hogsheds of muscovado sugar annually. 
  106. Recreo - San German.  Was established during the first half of the 19th Century and was acquired from its original owners by Corsican immigrant Pascual Antongiorgi Paoli (abt1830-bef1894) who installed a steam mill.  In 1890 was acquired by also Corsican immigrant Félix Pericchi Pericchi and subsequently owned by his nephew Juan Pericchi Ortiz (1867-1943) aka Juan Ortiz Pericchi.  It consisted of 440 acres of which 200 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located South of San German very close to it probably where today Urb. El Retiro is located.  The Estero River runs through the property about 100 m from the factory.
  107. Reforma - Camuy.  Was established by Gregorio Rodriguez with an oxen driven mill with wooden grinders.  Upon his death in 1872 it was inherited by his son Gregorio Rodriguez López who beginning in 1880 renovated and modernized some of its equipment and machinery but maintained the oxen driven mill albeit with steel grinders.  It was located between Camuy and Quebradillas in Barrio Camuy Arriba.
  108. Reforma - Isabela.  Was owned by Mayagüez born Julio O. Abril Arroyo who according to José Ferreras Pagán in his 1902 book Biografía de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico wasalso co-owner of Hacienda San Antonio in Bayamón with J. T. Silva.
  109. Resolución - Lajas.  Was established ca. 1850 by Antonio Pardo, in 1875 was acquired by Pedro Santos Vivoni Battistini (1840-1903) and his wife Maria Concepción Ramirez de Arlano Ramirez de Arellano.  It had a steam mill and produced about 600 hogsheds of muscovado sugar from the 300 of its 1,000 acres planted with sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Palmarejo.
  110. Retiro - Cabo Rojo.  Was a 334 acre plantation established by Mariano Ponce de León in 1820 with an oxen driven mill.  At an unknown time it was acquired by the firm Saint Laurent & Arán.
  111. Reunión - Guayama.  Was established in 1850 by Elias Montaño, was acquired by José Gual Frias, a Catalonian immigrant who soon would become one of the leading proponents of technological modernization and the reorganization of production in Guayama's sugar industry during the 1880s.  In 1891 it was acquired by the firm Amorós Hnos. It consisted of 550 acres of which 500 were planted with sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Jobos about 3 Km from Guayama. 
  112. Rocha - Moca, Natalia Echevarria
  113. Rubio - San Sebastian, Pablo Vidal
  114. ​Sábalos - Mayaguez.  Was established by Volmar Bayron who operated an oxen driven mill.  It was acquired by Calixto Delgado Acosta then by Buenaventura Hau in 1891 and in 1900 by Arturo Hau Salguero.  At one point in time it was upgraded with a steam driven mill.  It consisted of a total 525 acres of its own plus leased land of which about 75 were dedictated to gtow sugarcane.  It was located about 300 m from the West side of the road to San German about 3 Km from Mayaguez. 
  115. Sabanas - Camuy.  Was established by Spanish immigrant from the Canary Islands Vicente Machado Amador (1842-1888), in 1888 it was owned by Pedro Machado.  It consisted of 159 acres of which 50 to 70 were planted with sugarcane.  It was located about 300 meters South of the road to Aguadilla approximately 6 Km from Camuy.
  116. Saman - Cabo Rojo.  Established in 1890 by Pablo Hernández Perez with an oxen driven mill.  Consisted of 1,400 acres of which 60-80 were used to grow sugarcane.  Was located in Barrio Llanos Costa
  117. San Agustin - Cabo Rojo, Alejandro Fernandez
  118. San Andrés - San Sebastian, M., J. & S. Cabrero
  119. San Antonio - Bayamón.  Its origin dates back to the 17th Century.  In 1856 Nicasio Villa sold it to Monsieur Jourdan.  Jourdan leased it to Jose E. Berrios who in 1873 installed a steam powered mill.  In 1891 it was acquired by J. T. Silva and J. O. Abril Arroyo.  Was located Northwest of the road from Bayamón to Rio Piedras approximately 2 Km from Bayamón.
  120. San Carlos - Cabo Rojo.  Was established by Fernando Vélez with an oxen driven mill which was later replaced by a steam mill.  It was acquired by Lulio P. Castro at an unknown date.  It consisted of 320 acres of its own plus 500 leased of which about 400 were used to grow sugarcane.  Was located Southwest of the road from Mayagüez to San German near the iron bridge on the town limits between the Estero River and Rio Viejo. 
  121. San Francisco - Arecibo.  Was acquired in 1883 by Gregorio Ledesma from Manuela Figueroa and others.  By 1902 its was owned by Sucn. G. Ledesma whose representative was Manuel Ledesma.  Its factory had already closed and its sugarcane processed at Central Oriente which was very close by.
  122. San Francisco - San German.  Was established by Francisco Torres prior to 1881 when it was acquired by Segundo Millán and his wife Maria Francisca Cuebas who operated it until its closure in 1905.  It was located in Sector Minillas Parcelas of the Barrio Minillas.  It had an oxen driven mill and owned a small amount of land.  Reportedly, the smoke stack is still standing. 
  123. San Isidro - Rio Piedras, José Criado
  124. San Isidro - Aguadilla.  Was established ca. 1855 by Juan R. Acevedo with an oxen driven mill.  It was acquired by Enrique Hau in 1857 who installed a steam mill.  In 1897 it was acquired by Ramón Méndez de Arcaya and in 1897 by José Francisco Esteves also owner of Hacienda Victoria listed herein.  It consisted of 150 acres of which 50 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located at Km 4 on the road from Aguadilla to Lares.
  125. San José aka Sambolin - San German. It was established by Francisco Atreciano and acquired in 1857 by Giaccomo Vincenso (Vicente) Sambolin Strixino (1814-1881) an Italian immigrant from Savona who in 1860 installed machinery acquired from the Glasgow firm Mirlees Tait. It consisted of 700 "cuerdas" of which 250 were planted with sugarcane producing some 500 "bocoyes" of muscavado sugar.  In 1882 it passed on by inheritance to Vicente's son Santiago Sambolin Montalvo (1839-1916). It was located on the road from San German to Mayaguez only 1/2 Km from the town of San German accross the road from El Coto.
  126. San José - Rio Piedras, Dioni Cátala
  127. San Patricio - Quebradillas.  Was established in 1882 by Philadelphia native Lemuel Abraham, ca.1888 ownership was in the name of his son-in-law Miguel Marqués Omedo and by 1902 ownership was in the name of his grandson Atty. Lemuel Marqués Abrahams (1875-1935).  In 1895 the oxen driven mill was replaced by a steam driven mill acquired from Aitken, McNeil & Co. in Glasgow.  It was located on the East side of the road to Lares in Barrio San Antonio about 3 Km from Quebradillas and 1Km from the road to Aguadilla. 
  128. San Pedro - Fajardo.  Was established ca. 1860 by Juan Pedro Garcia and later owned by José Rivera and then by Luis Rivera and José Miguel Rivera Correa who also owned Hacienda Santa Rita in Fajardo.  The old Hacienda San Antonio and Hacienda Carolina were acquired by José Miguel and made part San Pedro and Santa Rita.  It was located Southeast of Fajardo about 1 Km from town.  Same as Santa Rita, its lands were very close to Central Fajardo so it is safe to assume they were eventually acquired and became part of it. 
  129. San Rafael - Yauco, Sucn. Angela Franceschi
  130. Santa Ana - San Lorenzo, J., C. & Quintana Soto
  131. Santa Ana - Mayagüez.  Was established by Victoriano Roselló with an oxen driven mill.  José Ferreras Pagán in his 1902 book Biografía de la Riquezas de Puerto Rico states that Roselló sold Santa Ana in 1861 to Diego Garcia Saint Laurent (1863-1904) which appears to be incorrect due to Garcia Saint Laurent's date of birth.  It may have been sold to Garcia Saint Laurent's parents Spanish immigrant from Jerez de la Frontera José Maria Gracía and his wife Saint Thomas born Zulma Saint Laurent.  Garcia Saint Laurent married Maria Teresa Mangual and a 2nd time married Antonia Cabassa Texidor who after Garcia Saint Lauret's death married Mateo Fajardo Cardona owner of Central Eureka .  It is reasonable to believe that Santa Ana was one of the properties involved in the litigation regarding the Sucn. Mateo Fajardo Cardona mentioned in Central Eureka 's page.  Santa Ana consisted of approximately 875 acres of which 182 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located on the East of the Guanajibo River between the road to San Germán and the sea shore, closer to the latter.
  132. Santa Ana - Yauco, Ana Maria Pacheco
  133. Santa Bárbara - Dorado.  Was established ca. 1870 by Antonio Martorell with an oxen driven mill, later installing a steam mill acquired from the West Point Foundry in New York.  By 1902 it had been acquired by Nemesio Guardiola Martinez (1827-1916) and consisted of 844 acres of land of which some 300 were planted with sugarcane.  It was located on the West bank of the Rio de la Plata about 2 Km from Dorado.  
  134. Santa Elena - Guayama. Was the most productive Hacienda in Guayama during the latter part of the 1800s, was owned by Catalina and Josefa Curet, daughters of Catalonian immigrant Pedro Curet and Andrea Lozada who came to Puerto Rico from Venezuela after the war of Indepence there.
  135. Santa Isabel - Camuy. Its original owner was Francisco Perelló who in 1894 started planting sugarcane processed in its own oxen driven mill.  It was sold in 1900 to Jorge Machado and by 1902 its processing plant was not in operation and its sugarcane was processed at Hacienda del Palmar.  It was located on the road to San Sebstian about 8 Km from Camuy. 
  136. Santa Isabel - San German.  Was established in 1867 by José Miguel Lugo Sepúlveda with an oxen driven mill.  In 1889 it was acquired by  Juan de J. Nazario.  It consisted of 84 acres of which 30 were used to grow sugarcane.
  137. Santa Maria - Fajardo.  Was established in 1860 by Manuel Romero who sold it to José de Celis Aguilera (1828-1898) and Ramón Mendez de Cardona in 1868.  It was Celis Aguilera who installed a steam mill ca. 1870.  It consisted of 912 acres of which 600 were used to grow sugarcane.  Was located East of the Road to Naguabo Northeast of Ceiba. 
  138. Santa Rita - Fajardo.  Was established ca. 1840 by Antonio Gotay, was later owned by Jesús Martinez, Federico Martinez and José Becerril Bermúdez.  Upon José's death in 1887 ownership passed on to his daughter Dolores Becerril Torres (1856-1890) who was married to José Miguel Rivera Correa also owner of Hacienda San Pedro.  It had a steam mill and was located about 1 Km Southeast of Central Fajado , hence it is reasonable to assume it was acquired and became part of its lands. 
  139. Santa Rosa - Bayamón.  Was owned by Manuel Garcia Maitín then by his widow Spanish immigrant from Valencia Beatriz Alós de los Angeles (1862-1904).  It had an oxen driven mill and was located East of Bayamón on the South side of the road to Rio Piedras.
  140. Santa Rosa - Isabela, Alfredo Koppish
  141. Santi Espíritu - Cabo Rojo.  Established in 1873 by José Ramón Wiscovich with an oxen driven mill.  Upon his death in 1885 it passed on to his son Julio Wiscovich Alarán who improved the property that was at that time abandoned.  It consisted of 100 acres all dedictaed to pasture, it only processed sugarcnae from nearby growers.  Its location is not identified.
  142. Santiago - Fajardo.  Was established in 1838 by Juan Campos with an oxen driven mill which was upgraded in 1858 to a steam mill by its then owner Pedro de Motta and his wife Elena de Celis Aguilera (1858-1936) being it the first steam mill in the area.  It was later acquired by Manuel Maria Baralt León (1844-1910) who was its owner in 1902.  It consisted of 1,000 acres of which 350 were used to grow sugarcane.  The Fajardo River meandered through its lands.
  143. Socorro - Camuy.  Was established in 1885 by Manuel Amador who sold it to Francisco Hernandez who in turn sold it in 1901 to Mauricio Hernandez.  It consisted of 60 acres of land of which 50 were used to grow sugarcane.
  144. Soledad - Mayaguez, Jacobo Bravo
  145. Soledad - Dorado.  Was established in 1892 by Pedro López with an oxen driven mill.  It had only about 20 acres planted with sugarcane producing a mere 50 hogsheds of muscovado sugar annually.  Was located North of Rio de la Plata on the trail from Maguayo to the Southern side of Dorado.
  146. Tolonesa - Fajardo.  Was established in 1840 by José Domec when it was named Hacienda Bello Sitio.  It was acquired ca. 1843 by Spanish immigrant from Tolosa in the Basque Country Province of Gipuzkoa Santiago Veve and his wife Josefina Ferand who changed its name to Hacienda Tolonesa.  It was later acquired by Jorge Bird León one of the incorporators of Central Fajardo .  It consisted of 370 acres.  It was located about 300 m East of Ceiba, probably in part of where Roosevelt Roads Naval Station was later located. 
  147. Unión - Fajardo.  Was established ca. 1892 by Miguel Zalduondo Veve (1867-1919) who installed a steam mill.  It was adjacent to the West to Haciena Margarita which was owned by his cousin Carolina Garcia Veve.  Miguel Zalduondo Veve was the son of Maria Victoria Veve Diaz daughter of Miguel Antonio Veve Ferand owner of ingenio Concepción .  It consisted of 920 acres of land of which approximately 400 were used to grow sugarcane plus an additional 650 acres of pasture land.  It was located on the banks of the Luquillo River, the Pitahaya River intersected its lands.
  148. Ursula - Juana Diaz, Sucn. J. Serrallés
  149. Vayas - Ponce.  Was acquired in 1820 by Spanish immigrant from the Canary Islands Gregorio de Medina from its founder Esteban Domenech.  Medina soon made Vayas one of the largest haciendas in Ponce.  In 1833 he sold half of the hacienda to his son-in-law Arturo B. Rogers whose business was slave trade.
  150. Vereda - Vega Baja.  Was established by Francisco Otero Martinez in 1855 with an oxen driven mill.  After his death, in 1884 then with a steam powered mill, the estate was in the name of one of his heirs; Francisco Otero Ramirez (1841-1909).  It consisted of 80 acres of its own of which 55 were used to grow sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Rio Abajo approximately 2 Km form town.  By 1902 it factory had been closed and its sugarcane processed at the nearby Central Carmen
  151. Victoria - Aguadilla.  According to José Ferreras Pagán in his 1902 book Biografia de las Riquezas de Puerto Rico, it was established by Juan de la Rosa who ca. 1850 installed a steam mill and at one time requested permission to silver plate the roof of his house.  It was acquired in 1891 by José Francisco Esteves Soriano (1848-1915) and his wife Enedina Volkers.  It consisted of 80 acres along the road from Aguadilla to San Sebastian, about 1 Km from Aguadilla and its lands reached all the way to the sea shore.
  152. Virginia - Isabela.  Was an oxen driven mill established in 1884 by the Sucn. Chaves after the death of Spanish immigrant from the Canary Islands Gonzalo Garcia-Chaves who dedicated most of its lands to grow fruits and vegetables.  The Sucn. Chaves was comprised of Jauna (1868-1928), Zoilo (1864-1911), Juan Francisco (1861-1941) and Gonzalo (1857-1940) Garcia-Chaves Reveron.  It consisted of approximately 125 acres of which 40 were used to grow sugarcane producing about 30 hogsheds of muscovado sugar annually.  It was located along the "El Centro" road from Quebradillas to Aguadilla about 5 Km West of the Guajataca River and about 4 Km Southeast of Isabela.
  153. Vista Alegre - Ponce.  It was the property of Sebastián Plaja until 1891 when it was acquired by Temistocles Laguna ( -1901).  It had a steam mill and consisted of 800 acres of which approximately 450 were planted with sugarcane.  It was located in Barrio Coto Laurel East of the Inabón River and West of the Guayo River and North of what today is PR-52.